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Old 26-10-2008, 10:09 PM   #1
Luke Rickards
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Default Enteroception

I have just come across the term enteroception, and have discovered it has never been mentioned here.

According to Bud Craig, interoception (which we have discussed here in some detail) is a meta-representation of internal sensations that results in a sense of the physiological condition of the entire body, eg hunger, thirst, internal temperature, sensual touch, and pain. Enteroception refers to the distinct sensations resulting from mechanical or chemical stimulation of internal afferent nerves. Of course, there is some overlap with respect to pain.

A recent brain study looking at sham vs. real acupuncture, in which both the cognitive and sensory perceptions of both interventions were reported as equivalent, found the deeper stimulation (enteroception) from real acupuncture resulted in a significant activation of the secondary somatotosenory cortex/posterior insula. This region is involved in orienting sensory attention and enhancing the behavioral salience of sensations. In this thread (see post #57 in particular) we discussed the possibility that the perception of novel enteroceptive mechanical input during many manual therapy techniques may play a role in altering the processing of pain perception. I also suspect that this is involved in the 'good pain' patients report during some techniques.

If I'm making any sense, perhaps we can delve into this a little.
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Old 26-10-2008, 11:47 PM   #2
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Luke,

This fits perfectly with the post you’ve referenced. If I’m not mistaken, the video of Ramachandran discussed earlier today in this thread further lends credibility to the notion that deformation of the skin itself at variable depths can have a sufficient effect to alter pain.

I still think that the pressure itself is likely to be not quite enough to change things in an enduring manner. For that, Wall’s instinctive resolution, also known as ideomotion, should be added to the care provided.
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Old 26-10-2008, 11:59 PM   #3
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Barrett,

I agree that the mechanics of the stimulus are unlikely to be sufficient. What I am suggesting is that the sensory perception of enteroceptive stimulus itself during, for example, ideomotion, might play a role in the resolution of pain processing.
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Old 27-10-2008, 12:09 AM   #4
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Absolutely. Sounds like you can refine your previous work on a theory of effect now.
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:04 AM   #5
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Luke, does Craig differentiate between intero- and entero-ception specifically, as in, visceral sensation is intero and sensation from the insides of somatic nerves is entero? I'm trying to find out if there's really any distinction. Janig just calls everything, whether afferent visceral from viscera or from non-"voluntary" peripheral structures such as insides of nerves/vasculature etc as visceral/interoceptive. In other words, why does Craig think we need a new word?

Because he's got a unique pathway? Because the fibers go to a unique destination?
(All of these things would be good advances and would support a fourth class of "-ception.")

Do you have a paper to post that clarifies the term and its usage?
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:26 AM   #6
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I haven't seen Craig mention enteroception. However, there is a difference between Craig's description of interoception (which is far more complex and includes integration of exteroceptive input) and, for example, Tread's description of enteroception - [eg] Tension or spasms in visceral organs, joint or muscle movements, and increased pressure within the tooth pulp or the bone marrow.
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:37 AM   #7
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I posted a paper here that may or may not be relevant. It's new to me and I'm not sure this is on topic or not.
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:46 AM   #8
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Jon,

The paper you posted would suggest that the two terms are actually interchangeable.
Quote:
‘Enteroceptive’ (en-; in, inside [Greek]), (also ‘interoceptive’), internal sensing.
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Old 27-10-2008, 02:20 AM   #9
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I can find only two papers where enteroception is mentioned. One is the paper that Jon brought, and another.

1.DelParigi A. Chen K. Salbe AD. Hill JO. Wing RR. Reiman EM. Tataranni PA. Persistence of abnormal neural responses to a meal in postobese individuals. [Journal Article] International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 28(3):370-7, 2004 Mar.

DelParigi, A. Chen, K. Salbe, A D. Hill, J O. Wing, R R. Reiman, E M. Tataranni, P A.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether abnormal obese-like neural responses to a meal persist in postobese individuals, who achieved and maintained a normal body weight despite a past history of severe obesity. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Cross-sectional study of the brain's response to tasting and consuming a satiating meal in 11 postobese (age: 40+/-6 y, body mass index (BMI): 23.6+/-1.9 kg/m(2)), 23 obese (age: 29+/-6 y, BMI: 39.6+/-3.8 kg/m(2)) and 21 lean (age: 33+/-9 y, BMI: 22.8+/-2.1 kg/m(2)) subjects. MEASUREMENTS: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, a marker of neural activity) at baseline (after a 36-h fast), after tasting and after consuming a satiating liquid meal was assessed using positron emission tomography and state-dependent changes (taste-baseline; satiation-baseline), and compared across groups. Subjective ratings of hunger and fullness were measured by a visual analogue scale and body fatness by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: In response to tasting the liquid meal, changes in rCBF were different in the obese as compared to the lean individuals (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons) in the middle insula (peak voxel, x=-41, y=1, z=8; Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates) and posterior cingulate cortex (peak voxel, x=17, y=-47, z=40). The middle insular cortex exhibited a similar increase of neural activity in the obese and postobese subjects, whereas in the lean subjects the regional activity did not change. In the posterior cingulate cortex, the changes in rCBF in the postobese subjects were not different from those in the other groups. In response to a satiating amount of the same liquid meal, changes in rCBF were different in the obese as compared to the lean individuals (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons) in the posterior hippocampus (peak voxel, x=21, y=-45, x=4), posterior cingulate cortex (peak voxel, x=17, y=-47, z=40), and amygdala (peak voxel, x=27, y=1, z=-24). The posterior hippocampus exhibited a similar decrease of neural activity in the obese and postobese subjects, whereas in the lean subjects the regional activity increased. In the posterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, the changes in rCBF were not different between the postobese and lean individuals. None of the changes in neural activity were correlated with the age of the individuals, the subjective ratings of hunger and fullness, or the meal induced-changes in plasma glucose, insulin, or serum free fatty acids. CONCLUSION: Persistence of abnormal neural responses to a meal in the postobese individuals, a group at high risk for relapse, indicates that a predisposition to obesity may involve areas of the brain that control complex aspects of eating behavior including anticipation and reward, chemosensory perception, and autonomic control of digestion (insular cortex), as well as enteroception and learning/memory (hippocampus).


2. Lathe R. Hormones and the hippocampus. [Review] [337 refs] [Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't. Review] Journal of Endocrinology. 169(2):205-31, 2001 May.

Lathe, R.

Hippocampal lesions produce memory deficits, but the exact function of the hippocampus remains obscure. Evidence is presented that its role in memory may be ancillary to physiological regulation. Molecular studies demonstrate that the hippocampus is a primary target for ligands that reflect body physiology, including ion balance and blood pressure, immunity, pain, reproductive status, satiety and stress. Hippocampal receptors are functional, probably accessible to their ligands, and mediate physiological and cognitive changes. This argues that an early role of the hippocampus may have been in sensing soluble molecules (termed here 'enteroception') in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, perhaps reflecting a common evolutionary origin with the olfactory system ('exteroception'). Functionally, hippocampal enteroception may reflect feedback control; evidence is reviewed that the hippocampus modulates body physiology, including the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, blood pressure, immunity, and reproductive function. It is suggested that the hippocampus operates, in parallel with the amygdala, to modulate body physiology in response to cognitive stimuli. Hippocampal outputs are predominantly inhibitory on downstream neuroendocrine activity; increased synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus (e.g. long-term potentiation) could facilitate throughput inhibition. This may have implications for the role of the hippocampus and long-term potentiation in memory.

It really makes me think enteroception and interoception are the same thing, maybe different only if the hippocampus is doing the sensing.. more "chemical" than neurological..

Incidentally, at the moment I'm working on transcribing the latest brainscience podcast, which is Gary Lynch, author of Big Brain, which is his work on the hippocampus and how it is associated with the olfactory system. He hypothesizes that the large fluffy human association cortex is built on the same plan and does things in the same way as the olfactory system, a random access system as opposed to a point-to-point system.
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Old 27-10-2008, 12:08 PM   #10
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Diane,

Searches will be limited to key words in the abstract. I have a number of papers that use it to describe the internal sensations produced by punctate machanical stimulus (acupuncture) and deep pressure.

Perhaps both terms are being used interchangeably. I'm interested, though, in what seems to be different types of e/interoception. Craig refers exclusively to a primary interoceptive system that is associated with the convergence of afferent input into lamina 1 and mediates autonomic motor function. However, as I understand it, conscious internal sensations may also reach the somatosensory cortex via other lamina.
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:03 PM   #11
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Quote:
However, as I understand it, conscious internal sensations may also reach the somatosensory cortex via other lamina.-Luke
Luke, is it possible to have a conscious internal sensation prior to reaching the brain (e.g. somatosensory cortex)? The way your wrote that made it seem like we have conscious internal sensations flowing through our lamina on the way to the brain. Maybe you mean something different or I'm about to learn something important?
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:16 PM   #12
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Thanks Jon. Let me rephrase...

Afferent input resulting in conscious internal sensations may reach the somatosensory cortex via other lamina.

Better?
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:29 PM   #13
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Sorry for any tone, I just wanted to make sure I wasn't missing something. I miss things often enough and I respect what you write enough that I felt I needed to ask. That would have resulted in huge shift in the way I conceptualize what's happening in the body.
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Old 27-10-2008, 01:38 PM   #14
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I didn't perceive any tone Jon. I totally agree that could be read incorrectly.
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